Exercise: Normal exercise first 8 months; then free exercise in pasture, but no riding.
Nutrition: Mineralized salt, pasture, alfalfa or grass hay, clean water. From 8 months to end of pregnancy--grain 1/2 to 1 lb. per 100 lbs. of body weight as needed, calcium phosphorous supplement, protein supplement.
Immunizations: Rhinopneumonitis vaccination at 5, 7, and 9 months; Eastern & Western Encephalitis/Tetanus/Influenza (4-Way) and West Nile vaccination 1 month before foaling date.
Worming: Worm before breeding; do not worm during first 2 months of pregnancy. Follow regular worming schedule after 2 months, but check labels of worming products for safety during pregnancy. Worm with Ivermectin product 1 month prior to foaling.
Signs of Foaling: Remember that all foaling signs are variable.
|Udder begins filling||3-4 weeks|
|Softening of croup area||about 2 weeks|
|Milk changes from yellow to smokey-white||12 hours|
|If mare drips milk excessively, some should be collected and saved for the foal by freezing.|
Delivery: Wrap tail; allow things to progress on their own as much as possible.
|Water bag breaks||0|
|Front feet and head presented||10 minutes|
|Feet, head, chest, hips||30 minutes|
|Foal standing||60 minutes|
|Fetal membranes passed||Less than 2 hours|
|Foal nursing||1-2 hours|
Foal Care: Make sure foal is breathing. Leave mare and foal alone and undisturbed as much as possible. Foal needs to receive 10% body weight in colostrum (milk) within 12 hours--normal nursing will provide this if the mare has not dripped milk excessively. Dip naval in Nolvasan or other chlorhexidine solution (1 part to 4 parts water), or in a diluted Betadine solution (weak tea color). Navel should be dipped 1-2 times a day for the first 3 days. Commercial enema solution, Vitamin ADE injection, and a probiotic should be given (may be done by the veterinarian the next day).
Mare Care: Fetal membranes should be passed within 2 hours; check to see if they are complete and save for your veterinarian to examine. (Under no circumstances should you pull on the fetal membranes to hasten the passing of the placenta.) Check for tears in vulva tissue and persistent hemorrhage; check mare's udder for milk. Put mare out for some exercise each day.
Birth to 3 Months (Mare): Nutrition is very important during this time--hay, salt, calcium phosphorous supplement, 1/2 to 1 lb. grain per 100 lbs. body weight as needed to maintain condition.
Birth to 6 Months (Foal):
|Exercise||Turn out daily with a warm, dry place to rest.|
|Immunizations||E/W Encephalitis, Tetanus, Influenza, Rhinopneumonitis at 5 and 6 months, and West Nile vaccinations at 3 or 4 months with a booster 4-6 weeks later|
|Worming||Every 2 months for first year of life|